GenomeRNAi - a database for RNAi phenotypes and reagents

Phenotype information for gene 5781 (PTPN11)

Screen TitleGene IDGene SymbolReagent IDScorePhenotypeFollow Up
Genome stability
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
sp
none no

Reference

A genome-wide siRNA screen reveals diverse cellular processes and pathways that mediate genome stability. Paulsen et al., 2009

Signaling pathways that respond to DNA damage are essential for the maintenance of genome stability and are linked to many diseases, including cancer. Here, a genome-wide siRNA screen was employed to identify additional genes involved in genome stabilization by monitoring phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, an early mark of DNA damage. We identified hundreds of genes whose downregulation led to elevated levels of H2AX phosphorylation (gammaH2AX) and revealed links to cellular complexes and to genes with unclassified functions. We demonstrate a widespread role for mRNA-processing factors in preventing DNA damage, which in some cases is caused by aberrant RNA-DNA structures. Furthermore, we connect increased gammaH2AX levels to the neurological disorder Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome, and we find a role for several CMT proteins in the DNA-damage response. These data indicate that preservation of genome stability is mediated by a larger network of biological processes than previously appreciated.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00053-A
Screen Title: Genome stability
Assay: gamma-H2AX phosphorylation and DNA content
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: ThermoFisher Scientific, siARRAY human genome siRNA library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: p-value
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes: Confidence groupings from 4 to 1 (highest level of confidence in group 4)

Cell viability
PTPN11
np
np
Increased cell death in breast cancer cell lines (MCF10A, MDA-MB-435) no

Reference

Profiling essential genes in human mammary cells by multiplex RNAi screening. Silva et al., 2008

By virtue of their accumulated genetic alterations, tumor cells may acquire vulnerabilities that create opportunities for therapeutic intervention. We have devised a massively parallel strategy for screening short hairpin RNA (shRNA) collections for stable loss-of-function phenotypes. We assayed from 6000 to 20,000 shRNAs simultaneously to identify genes important for the proliferation and survival of five cell lines derived from human mammary tissue. Lethal shRNAs common to these cell lines targeted many known cell-cycle regulatory networks. Cell line-specific sensitivities to suppression of protein complexes and biological pathways also emerged, and these could be validated by RNA interference (RNAi) and pharmacologically. These studies establish a practical platform for genome-scale screening of complex phenotypes in mammalian cells and demonstrate that RNAi can be used to expose genotype-specific sensitivities.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00104-A-0
Screen Title: Cell viability
Assay: Cell viability
Method: Sequencing
Scope:
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: MCF-10A, MDA-MB-435 (breast cancer)
Library: , shRNA-mir (G. Hannon)
Reagent Type: shRNA
Score Type: log ratio
Cutoff: <= -1 (>= 50% cell death)
Notes:

Focal adhesion formation
5781
PTPN11
np
sp
Decreased focal adhesion (FA) area, decreased FA length, decreased FA mean intensity, increased number of small and round FAs no

Reference

Multiparametric analysis of focal adhesion formation by RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. Winograd-Katz et al., 2009

Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is mediated by elaborate networks of multiprotein complexes consisting of adhesion receptors, cytoskeletal components, signaling molecules, and diverse adaptor proteins. To explore how specific molecular pathways function in the assembly of focal adhesions (FAs), we performed a high-throughput, high-resolution, microscopy-based screen. We used small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target human kinases, phosphatases, and migration- and adhesion-related genes. Multiparametric image analysis of control and of siRNA-treated cells revealed major correlations between distinct morphological FA features. Clustering analysis identified different gene families whose perturbation induced similar effects, some of which uncoupled the interfeature correlations. Based on these findings, we propose a model for the molecular hierarchy of FA formation, and tested its validity by dynamic analysis of FA formation and turnover. This study provides a comprehensive information resource on the molecular regulation of multiple cell adhesion features, and sheds light on signaling mechanisms regulating the formation of integrin adhesions.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00210-A
Screen Title: Focal adhesion formation
Assay: paxillin protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Kinases, phosphatases and selected genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Thermo Fisher Scientific, SMARTpool siARRAY siRNA Libraries
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: > 3.5 OR < -3.5
Notes:

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
142398
16.66
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

Cell division (1)
ENSG00000179295
PTPN11
ENSG00000179295
sp
none no

Reference

Genome-scale RNAi profiling of cell division in human tissue culture cells. Kittler et al., 2007

Cell division is fundamental for all organisms. Here we report a genome-scale RNA-mediated interference screen in HeLa cells designed to identify human genes that are important for cell division. We have used a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs for gene silencing and have used DNA content analysis to identify genes that induced cell cycle arrest or altered ploidy on silencing. Validation and secondary assays were performed to generate a nine-parameter loss-of-function phenoprint for each of the genes. These phenotypic signatures allowed the assignment of genes to specific functional classes by combining hierarchical clustering, cross-species analysis and proteomic data mining. We highlight the richness of our dataset by ascribing novel functions to genes in mitosis and cytokinesis. In particular, we identify two evolutionarily conserved transcriptional regulatory networks that govern cytokinesis. Our work provides an experimental framework from which the systematic analysis of novel genes necessary for cell division in human cells can begin.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00098-A-1
Screen Title: Cell division (1)
Assay: Cell number and DNA content
Method: Laser scanning cytometry
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Custom-made, rp
Reagent Type: esiRNA
Score Type: Complex, sp
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

Cell-cycle regulation
NM_002834
NM_002834 siRNA2
NM_002834 siRNA1
sp
Increased cell number in G2M, increased number of polyploid cells no

Reference

Genome-wide functional analysis of human cell-cycle regulators. Mukherji et al., 2006

Human cells have evolved complex signaling networks to coordinate the cell cycle. A detailed understanding of the global regulation of this fundamental process requires comprehensive identification of the genes and pathways involved in the various stages of cell-cycle progression. To this end, we report a genome-wide analysis of the human cell cycle, cell size, and proliferation by targeting >95% of the protein-coding genes in the human genome using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Analysis of >2 million images, acquired by quantitative fluorescence microscopy, showed that depletion of 1,152 genes strongly affected cell-cycle progression. These genes clustered into eight distinct phenotypic categories based on phase of arrest, nuclear area, and nuclear morphology. Phase-specific networks were built by interrogating knowledge-based and physical interaction databases with identified genes. Genome-wide analysis of cell-cycle regulators revealed a number of kinase, phosphatase, and proteolytic proteins and also suggests that processes thought to regulate G(1)-S phase progression like receptor-mediated signaling, nutrient status, and translation also play important roles in the regulation of G(2)/M phase transition. Moreover, 15 genes that are integral to TNF/NF-kappaB signaling were found to regulate G(2)/M, a previously unanticipated role for this pathway. These analyses provide systems-level insight into both known and novel genes as well as pathways that regulate cell-cycle progression, a number of which may provide new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cancer.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00096-A
Screen Title: Cell-cycle regulation
Assay: Cell number and nuclei size
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide and druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: U2OS
Library: Qiagen, Custom-made
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Complex, sp
Cutoff: np
Notes: Additional information about a secondary screen

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
4269
115.08
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

Hepatitis C virus replication (1)
5781
PTPN11
PL-50016
0.77
none no

Reference

A functional genomic screen identifies cellular cofactors of hepatitis C virus replication. Tai et al., 2009

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 3% of the world''s population, and complications from HCV are the leading indication for liver transplantation. Given the need for better anti-HCV therapies, one strategy is to identify and target cellular cofactors of the virus lifecycle. Using a genome-wide siRNA library, we identified 96 human genes that support HCV replication, with a significant number of them being involved in vesicle organization and biogenesis. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase PI4KA and multiple subunits of the COPI vesicle coat complex were among the genes identified. Consistent with this, pharmacologic inhibitors of COPI and PI4KA blocked HCV replication. Targeting hepcidin, a peptide critical for iron homeostasis, also affected HCV replication, which may explain the known dysregulation of iron homeostasis in HCV infection. The host cofactors for HCV replication identified in this study should serve as a useful resource in delineating new targets for anti-HCV therapies.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00180-A-1
Screen Title: Hepatitis C virus replication (1)
Assay: HCV replicon RNA copy number
Method: Luminescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: Huh7/Rep-Feo
Library: Dharmacon, siARRAY Human Genome siRNA Library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: q-value
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulation
5781
PTPN11
np
2.57
Upregulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway after WNT3A stimulation no

Reference

Bruton's tyrosine kinase revealed as a negative regulator of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. James et al., 2009

Wnts are secreted ligands that activate several receptor-mediated signal transduction cascades. Homeostatic Wnt signaling through beta-catenin is required in adults, because either elevation or attenuation of beta-catenin function has been linked to diverse diseases. To contribute to the identification of both protein and pharmacological regulators of this pathway, we describe a combinatorial screen that merged data from a high-throughput screen of known bioactive compounds with an independent focused small interfering RNA screen. Each screen independently revealed Bruton''s tyrosine kinase (BTK) as an inhibitor of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling. Loss of BTK function in human colorectal cancer cells, human B cells, zebrafish embryos, and cells derived from X-linked agammaglobulinemia patients with a mutant BTK gene resulted in elevated Wnt-beta-catenin signaling, confirming that BTK acts as a negative regulator of this pathway. From affinity purification-mass spectrometry and biochemical binding studies, we found that BTK directly interacts with a nuclear component of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling, CDC73. Further, we show that BTK increased the abundance of CDC73 in the absence of stimulation and that CDC73 acted as a repressor of beta-catenin-mediated transcription in human colorectal cancer cells and B cells.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00016-A
Screen Title: Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulation
Assay: Wnt/beta-catenin pathway reporter
Method: Luminescence
Scope: Selected genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: RKO
Library: rp, rp
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: > 2
Notes:

Self-renewal and pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (1)
NM_002834
PTPN11
0.19
none no

Reference

A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals determinants of human embryonic stem cell identity. Chia et al., 2010

The derivation of human ES cells (hESCs) from human blastocysts represents one of the milestones in stem cell biology. The full potential of hESCs in research and clinical applications requires a detailed understanding of the genetic network that governs the unique properties of hESCs. Here, we report a genome-wide RNA interference screen to identify genes which regulate self-renewal and pluripotency properties in hESCs. Interestingly, functionally distinct complexes involved in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodelling are among the factors identified in the screen. To understand the roles of these potential regulators of hESCs, we studied transcription factor PRDM14 to gain new insights into its functional roles in the regulation of pluripotency. We showed that PRDM14 regulates directly the expression of key pluripotency gene POU5F1 through its proximal enhancer. Genome-wide location profiling experiments revealed that PRDM14 colocalized extensively with other key transcription factors such as OCT4, NANOG and SOX2, indicating that PRDM14 is integrated into the core transcriptional regulatory network. More importantly, in a gain-of-function assay, we showed that PRDM14 is able to enhance the efficiency of reprogramming of human fibroblasts in conjunction with OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4. Altogether, our study uncovers a wealth of novel hESC regulators wherein PRDM14 exemplifies a key transcription factor required for the maintenance of hESC identity and the reacquisition of pluripotency in human somatic cells.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00184-A-1
Screen Title: Self-renewal and pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (1)
Assay: POU5F1 protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: hESC H1
Library: Dharmacon, SMARTpool siRNA library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: < -2
Notes:

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
4269
116.66
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

Human papillomavirus oncogene expression regulation (1)
5781
PTPN11
-0.06
none no

Reference

Genome-wide siRNA screen identifies SMCX, EP400, and Brd4 as E2-dependent regulators of human papillomavirus oncogene expression. Smith et al., 2010

An essential step in the pathogenesis of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers is the dysregulated expression of the viral oncogenes. The papillomavirus E2 protein can silence the long control region (LCR) promoter that controls viral E6 and E7 oncogene expression. The mechanisms by which E2 represses oncogene expression and the cellular factors through which E2 mediates this silencing are largely unknown. We conducted an unbiased, genome-wide siRNA screen and series of secondary screens that identified 96 cellular genes that contribute to the repression of the HPV LCR. In addition to confirming a role for the E2-binding bromodomain protein Brd4 in E2-mediated silencing, we identified a number of genes that have not previously been implicated in E2 repression, including the demethylase JARID1C/SMCX as well as EP400, a component of the NuA4/TIP60 histone acetyltransferase complex. Each of these genes contributes independently and additively to E2-mediated silencing, indicating that E2 functions through several distinct cellular complexes to repress E6 and E7 expression.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00197-A-1
Screen Title: Human papillomavirus oncogene expression regulation (1)
Assay: HPV18 LCR reporter activity
Method: Luminescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: C33A/BE2/18LCR c4
Library: Dharmacon, Human siGENOME SMARTpool library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: >= 2
Notes: Author-submitted data. Phenotype strength according to Z-scores: weak: 2 - 3; moderate: 3 - 5; strong: > 5

Proliferation and survival of human cancer cell lines
PTPN11
np
np
Decreased viability in esophageal squamous lineage no

Reference

Systematic investigation of genetic vulnerabilities across cancer cell lines reveals lineage-specific dependencies in ovarian cancer. Cheung et al., 2011

A comprehensive understanding of the molecular vulnerabilities of every type of cancer will provide a powerful roadmap to guide therapeutic approaches. Efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas Project will identify genes with aberrant copy number, sequence, or expression in various cancer types, providing a survey of the genes that may have a causal role in cancer. A complementary approach is to perform systematic loss-of-function studies to identify essential genes in particular cancer cell types. We have begun a systematic effort, termed Project Achilles, aimed at identifying genetic vulnerabilities across large numbers of cancer cell lines. Here, we report the assessment of the essentiality of 11,194 genes in 102 human cancer cell lines. We show that the integration of these functional data with information derived from surveying cancer genomes pinpoints known and previously undescribed lineage-specific dependencies across a wide spectrum of cancers. In particular, we found 54 genes that are specifically essential for the proliferation and viability of ovarian cancer cells and also amplified in primary tumors or differentially overexpressed in ovarian cancer cell lines. One such gene, PAX8, is focally amplified in 16% of high-grade serous ovarian cancers and expressed at higher levels in ovarian tumors. Suppression of PAX8 selectively induces apoptotic cell death of ovarian cancer cells. These results identify PAX8 as an ovarian lineage-specific dependency. More generally, these observations demonstrate that the integration of genome-scale functional and structural studies provides an efficient path to identify dependencies of specific cancer types on particular genes and pathways.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00235-A
Screen Title: Proliferation and survival of human cancer cell lines
Assay: Viability
Method: Microarray
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: 786-O, A-204, A549, A2058, A2780, AGS, AsPC-1, BxPC-3, C2BBe1, Caov-3, Caov-4, CFPAC-1, CH-157MN, COLO 205, COLO-704, COLO 741, COV362, COV434, COV504, DLD-1, EFO-21, EFO-27, F5, GP2d, HCC70, HCC364, HCC827, HCC2814, HEC-1-A, Hey-A8, HL-60, HLF, HPAC, Hs
Library: The RNAi Consortium (TRC), TRC shRNA Library
Reagent Type: shRNA
Score Type: Rank
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes: Additional information about competition assays. Lineages: colon: C2BBe1, COLO 205, DLD-1, GP2d, HT-29, HT55, HuTu 80, KM12, LoVo, LS411N, LS513, NCI-H508, RKO, SK-CO-1, SNU-C1, SNU-C2A, SW48, SW480; esophageal: KYSE-30, KYSE-150, KYSE-450, KYSE-510, TE-9

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
142399
-21.96
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

TRAIL-induced apoptosis (2)
NM_002834
PTPN11
0.55
none no

Reference

A synthetic lethal screen identifies FAT1 as an antagonist of caspase-8 in extrinsic apoptosis. Kranz and Boutros, 2014

The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is initiated by binding of death ligands to death receptors resulting in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Activation of procaspase-8 within the DISC and its release from the signaling complex is required for processing executor caspases and commiting cell death. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin FAT1 interacts with caspase-8 preventing the association of caspase-8 with the DISC. We identified FAT1 in a genome-wide siRNA screen for synthetic lethal interactions with death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of FAT1 sensitized established and patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines for apoptosis transduced by cell death ligands. Depletion of FAT1 resulted in enhanced procaspase-8 recruitment to the DISC and increased formation of caspase-8 containing secondary signaling complexes. In addition, FAT1 knockout cell lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering were more susceptible for death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Our findings provide evidence for a mechanism to control caspase-8-dependent cell death by the atypical cadherin FAT1. These results contribute towards the understanding of effector caspase regulation in physiological conditions.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00240-S-2
Screen Title: TRAIL-induced apoptosis (2)
Assay: Viability (synthetic lethal)
Method: Luminescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: U251MG
Library: Dharmacon, SMART-pool siRNA
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Differential score
Cutoff: > 3.6 AND viability Z-score < 4
Notes: Author-submitted data. Z-scores from viability screen (1) are considered in score interpretation for this screen. Additional comments are available via the download function

TP53 interactions (1)
ENSG00000179295
np
sp
none no

Reference

A systematic RNAi synthetic interaction screen reveals a link between p53 and snoRNP assembly. Krastev et al., 2011

TP53 (tumour protein 53) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer and its role during cellular transformation has been studied extensively. However, the homeostatic functions of p53 are less well understood. Here, we explore the molecular dependency network of TP53 through an RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screen employing two HCT116 isogenic cell lines and a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA library. We identify a variety of TP53 synthetic interactions unmasking the complex connections of p53 to cellular physiology and growth control. Molecular dissection of the TP53 synthetic interaction with UNRIP indicates an enhanced dependency of TP53-negative cells on small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) assembly. This dependency is mediated by the snoRNP chaperone gene NOLC1 (also known as NOPP140), which we identify as a physiological p53 target gene. This unanticipated function of TP53 in snoRNP assembly highlights the potential of RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screens to dissect molecular pathways of tumour suppressor genes.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00196-A-1
Screen Title: TP53 interactions (1)
Assay: TP53 protein expression and viability
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HCT116 ( wildtype and TP53 knockout)
Library: Custom-made, rp
Reagent Type: esiRNA
Score Type: Complex, sp
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

Homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) (1)
ENSG00000179295
PTPN11
np
-0.58
none no

Reference

A genome-scale DNA repair RNAi screen identifies SPG48 as a novel gene associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia. Słabicki et al., 2010

DNA repair is essential to maintain genome integrity, and genes with roles in DNA repair are frequently mutated in a variety of human diseases. Repair via homologous recombination typically restores the original DNA sequence without introducing mutations, and a number of genes that are required for homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) have been identified. However, a systematic analysis of this important DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells has not been reported. Here, we describe a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA (esiRNA) screen for genes involved in DNA double strand break repair. We report 61 genes that influenced the frequency of HR-DSBR and characterize in detail one of the genes that decreased the frequency of HR-DSBR. We show that the gene KIAA0415 encodes a putative helicase that interacts with SPG11 and SPG15, two proteins mutated in hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). We identify mutations in HSP patients, discovering KIAA0415/SPG48 as a novel HSP-associated gene, and show that a KIAA0415/SPG48 mutant cell line is more sensitive to DNA damaging drugs. We present the first genome-scale survey of HR-DSBR in mammalian cells providing a dataset that should accelerate the discovery of novel genes with roles in DNA repair and associated medical conditions. The discovery that proteins forming a novel protein complex are required for efficient HR-DSBR and are mutated in patients suffering from HSP suggests a link between HSP and DNA repair.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00151-A-1
Screen Title: Homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) (1)
Assay: (HR-DSBR) DR-GFP reporter
Method: Flow cytometry
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Custom-made, Custom-made
Reagent Type: esiRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: < -2 OR > 2
Notes:

Apoptosis regulation after Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 infection
5781
PTPN11
np
np
none no

Reference

HIF-1α is involved in mediating apoptosis resistance to Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells. Sharma et al., 2011

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria that cause widespread diseases in humans. Due to the intimate association between bacterium and host, Chlamydia evolved various strategies to protect their host cell against death-inducing stimuli, allowing the bacterium to complete its development cycle. An RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen was used to identify host cell factors required for apoptosis resistance of human epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2. Among the 32 validated hits, the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 was identified as a target. Protein network analyses implicated the transcription factor hypoxia-induced factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) to be central to the regulation of many of the identified targets. Further mechanistic investigations showed that HIF-1α was stabilized within the host cell cytoplasm during early infection time points, followed by its translocation to the nucleus and eventual transcriptional activation of Mcl-1. siRNA-mediated depletion of HIF-1α led to a drastic decrease in Mcl-1, rendering the cell sensitive to apoptosis induction. Taken together, our findings identify HIF-1α as responsible for upregulation of Mcl-1 and the maintenance of apoptosis resistance during Chlamydia infection.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00206-A
Screen Title: Apoptosis regulation after Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 infection
Assay: Cleaved cytokeratin-18 protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Apoptosis, cellular trafficking and cell signalling genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Custom-made, Custom-made
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: p-value
Cutoff: <= 0.05
Notes: Author-reviewed data

TRAIL-induced apoptosis (1)
NM_002834
PTPN11
-1.02
none yes

Reference

A synthetic lethal screen identifies FAT1 as an antagonist of caspase-8 in extrinsic apoptosis. Kranz and Boutros, 2014

The extrinsic apoptosis pathway is initiated by binding of death ligands to death receptors resulting in the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC). Activation of procaspase-8 within the DISC and its release from the signaling complex is required for processing executor caspases and commiting cell death. Here, we report that the atypical cadherin FAT1 interacts with caspase-8 preventing the association of caspase-8 with the DISC. We identified FAT1 in a genome-wide siRNA screen for synthetic lethal interactions with death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of FAT1 sensitized established and patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines for apoptosis transduced by cell death ligands. Depletion of FAT1 resulted in enhanced procaspase-8 recruitment to the DISC and increased formation of caspase-8 containing secondary signaling complexes. In addition, FAT1 knockout cell lines generated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering were more susceptible for death receptor-mediated apoptosis. Our findings provide evidence for a mechanism to control caspase-8-dependent cell death by the atypical cadherin FAT1. These results contribute towards the understanding of effector caspase regulation in physiological conditions.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00240-S-1
Screen Title: TRAIL-induced apoptosis (1)
Assay: Viability
Method: Luminescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: U251MG
Library: Dharmacon, SMART-pool siRNA
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: > 4
Notes: Author-submitted data

Epithelial cell migration (1)
5781
PTPN11
np
np
none no

Reference

Identification of genes that regulate epithelial cell migration using an siRNA screening approach. Simpson et al., 2008

To provide a systematic analysis of genes that regulate epithelial cell migration, we performed a high throughput wound healing screen with MCF-10A breast epithelial cells, using siRNAs targeting 1,081 human genes encoding phosphatases, kinases and proteins predicted to influence cell migration and adhesion. The primary screen identified three categories of hits: those that accelerate, those that inhibit and those that impair migration with associated effects on cell proliferation or metabolism. Extensive validation of all the hits yielded 66 high confidence genes that, when downregulated, either accelerated or impaired migration; 42 of these high confidence genes have not been previously associated with motility or adhesion. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed a broad spectrum of phenotypic changes involving alterations in the extent and nature of disruption of cell-cell adhesion, directionality of motility, cell polarity and shape, and protrusion dynamics. Informatics analysis highlighted three major signalling nodes, beta-catenin, beta1-integrin and actin, and a large proportion of the genes that accelerated migration impaired cell-cell adhesion.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00055-A-1
Screen Title: Epithelial cell migration (1)
Assay: Cell migration and viability
Method: Microscopy and fluorescence
Scope: Kinases, phosphatases and migration and adhesion related (MAR) genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: MCF-10A
Library: Dharmacon and custom-made, SMARTpool siRNA library and MAR library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Area score and Alamar score
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

Combinatorial effect with paclitaxel
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
1.01
none no

Reference

Synthetic lethal screen identification of chemosensitizer loci in cancer cells. Whitehurst et al., 2007

Abundant evidence suggests that a unifying principle governing the molecular pathology of cancer is the co-dependent aberrant regulation of core machinery driving proliferation and suppressing apoptosis. Anomalous proteins engaged in support of this tumorigenic regulatory environment most probably represent optimal intervention targets in a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. The advent of RNA-mediated interference (RNAi)-based functional genomics provides the opportunity to derive unbiased comprehensive collections of validated gene targets supporting critical biological systems outside the framework of preconceived notions of mechanistic relationships. We have combined a high-throughput cell-based one-well/one-gene screening platform with a genome-wide synthetic library of chemically synthesized small interfering RNAs for systematic interrogation of the molecular underpinnings of cancer cell chemoresponsiveness. NCI-H1155, a human non-small-cell lung cancer line, was employed in a paclitaxel-dependent synthetic lethal screen designed to identify gene targets that specifically reduce cell viability in the presence of otherwise sublethal concentrations of paclitaxel. Using a stringent objective statistical algorithm to reduce false discovery rates below 5%, we isolated a panel of 87 genes that represent major focal points of the autonomous response of cancer cells to the abrogation of microtubule dynamics. Here we show that several of these targets sensitize lung cancer cells to paclitaxel concentrations 1,000-fold lower than otherwise required for a significant response, and we identify mechanistic relationships between cancer-associated aberrant gene expression programmes and the basic cellular machinery required for robust mitotic progression.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00054-A
Screen Title: Combinatorial effect with paclitaxel
Assay: Viability (synthetic lethal)
Method: ATP level
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: NCI-H1155
Library: Dharmacon, # G-005000-01
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Paclitaxel/control ratio
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes: Additional information about 87 high-confidence hits

Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium invasion (1)
5781
PTPN11
np
0.05
none no

Reference

RNAi screen of Salmonella invasion shows role of COPI in membrane targeting of cholesterol and Cdc42. Misselwitz et al., 2011

The pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium is a common cause of diarrhea and invades the gut tissue by injecting a cocktail of virulence factors into epithelial cells, triggering actin rearrangements, membrane ruffling and pathogen entry. One of these factors is SopE, a G-nucleotide exchange factor for the host cellular Rho GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42. How SopE mediates cellular invasion is incompletely understood. Using genome-scale RNAi screening we identified 72 known and novel host cell proteins affecting SopE-mediated entry. Follow-up assays assigned these ''hits'' to particular steps of the invasion process; i.e., binding, effector injection, membrane ruffling, membrane closure and maturation of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Depletion of the COPI complex revealed a unique effect on virulence factor injection and membrane ruffling. Both effects are attributable to mislocalization of cholesterol, sphingolipids, Rac1 and Cdc42 away from the plasma membrane into a large intracellular compartment. Equivalent results were obtained with the vesicular stomatitis virus. Therefore, COPI-facilitated maintenance of lipids may represent a novel, unifying mechanism essential for a wide range of pathogens, offering opportunities for designing new drugs.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00133-A-1
Screen Title: Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium invasion (1)
Assay: Gentamycin protection invasion assay
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Qiagen, Druggable genome library V2.0
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: log2 median
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

TNF-induced apoptosis
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
1.12
none no

Reference

A functional RNAi screen identifies hexokinase 1 as a modifier of type II apoptosis. Schindler and Foley, 2010

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) signals through NF-kappaB, JNK, and caspase modules to drive physiological responses that range from inflammation to apoptosis. The balance between the individual modules determines the nature of the response, and deregulated TNF signaling has been implicated in numerous pathological conditions. We used a quantitative high-throughput RNA interference assay to probe the entire complement of human kinases and phosphatases for gene products that tilt the balance of TNF signal transduction in favor of cell death or cell viability. Of all gene products tested, loss of hexokinase 1 resulted in the greatest elevations in TNF-dependent death. In secondary assays, we demonstrated that hexokinase 1 does not alter TNF-dependent activation of NF-kappaB or JNK modules. Instead, hexokinase 1 modifies the induction of caspase-driven cell death. Specifically, we showed that hexokinase 1 inhibits the formation of active, pro-apoptotic caspases in response to extrinsic inducers of apoptosis. These data are the first loss-of-function reports to examine the involvement of hexokinase 1 in the transduction of cell death signals and indicate that hexokinases are critical determinants of the viability of cells in response to extrinsic apoptotic cues.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00228-A
Screen Title: TNF-induced apoptosis
Assay: Viability (synthetic lethal)
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Kinases and phosphatases
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Applied Biosystems, Human kinase siRNA library V3 and Human phosphatase siRNA library V3
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Death index
Cutoff: 99% confidence interval: > 2.58 SD; 95% confidence interval: > 1.96 SD
Notes:

Mitotic exit regulation
5781
PTPN11
SI00301539
np
none no

Reference

Live-cell imaging RNAi screen identifies PP2A-B55alpha and importin-beta1 as key mitotic exit regulators in human cells. Schmitz et al., 2010

When vertebrate cells exit mitosis various cellular structures are re-organized to build functional interphase cells. This depends on Cdk1 (cyclin dependent kinase 1) inactivation and subsequent dephosphorylation of its substrates. Members of the protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) families can dephosphorylate Cdk1 substrates in biochemical extracts during mitotic exit, but how this relates to postmitotic reassembly of interphase structures in intact cells is not known. Here, we use a live-cell imaging assay and RNAi knockdown to screen a genome-wide library of protein phosphatases for mitotic exit functions in human cells. We identify a trimeric PP2A-B55alpha complex as a key factor in mitotic spindle breakdown and postmitotic reassembly of the nuclear envelope, Golgi apparatus and decondensed chromatin. Using a chemically induced mitotic exit assay, we find that PP2A-B55alpha functions downstream of Cdk1 inactivation. PP2A-B55alpha isolated from mitotic cells had reduced phosphatase activity towards the Cdk1 substrate, histone H1, and was hyper-phosphorylated on all subunits. Mitotic PP2A complexes co-purified with the nuclear transport factor importin-beta1, and RNAi depletion of importin-beta1 delayed mitotic exit synergistically with PP2A-B55alpha. This demonstrates that PP2A-B55alpha and importin-beta1 cooperate in the regulation of postmitotic assembly mechanisms in human cells.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00205-A
Screen Title: Mitotic exit regulation
Assay: H2B and IBB protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Phosphatases
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa
Library: Qiagen, Human siRNA phosphatase V3.0 library
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: > 3
Notes: Author-reviewed data. HeLa Kyoto strain

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
142398
-3.62
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

Homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) (1)
5781
PTPN11
1.2
none no

Reference

A genome-wide homologous recombination screen identifies the RNA-binding protein RBMX as a component of the DNA-damage response. Adamson et al., 2012

Repair of DNA double-strand breaks is critical to genomic stability and the prevention of developmental disorders and cancer. A central pathway for this repair is homologous recombination (HR). Most knowledge of HR is derived from work in prokaryotic and eukaryotic model organisms. We carried out a genome-wide siRNA-based screen in human cells. Among positive regulators of HR we identified networks of DNA-damage-response and pre-mRNA-processing proteins, and among negative regulators we identified a phosphatase network. Three candidate proteins localized to DNA lesions, including RBMX, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has a role in alternative splicing. RBMX accumulated at DNA lesions through multiple domains in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1-dependent manner and promoted HR by facilitating proper BRCA2 expression. Our screen also revealed that off-target depletion of RAD51 is a common source of RNAi false positives, raising a cautionary note for siRNA screens and RNAi-based studies of HR.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00236-A-1
Screen Title: Homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR) (1)
Assay: (HR-DSBR) DR-GFP reporter and DNA content
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: DR-U2OS
Library: Dharmacon, Human siGENOME siRNA (G-005000-05)
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Relative HR ratio
Cutoff: < ~0.4 OR > 1.88
Notes: Cutoff values correspond 2 standard deviations from the screen-wide mean

Melanogenesis
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
0.94
none no

Reference

Genome-wide siRNA-based functional genomics of pigmentation identifies novel genes and pathways that impact melanogenesis in human cells. Ganesan et al., 2008

Melanin protects the skin and eyes from the harmful effects of UV irradiation, protects neural cells from toxic insults, and is required for sound conduction in the inner ear. Aberrant regulation of melanogenesis underlies skin disorders (melasma and vitiligo), neurologic disorders (Parkinson''s disease), auditory disorders (Waardenburg''s syndrome), and opthalmologic disorders (age related macular degeneration). Much of the core synthetic machinery driving melanin production has been identified; however, the spectrum of gene products participating in melanogenesis in different physiological niches is poorly understood. Functional genomics based on RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) provides the opportunity to derive unbiased comprehensive collections of pharmaceutically tractable single gene targets supporting melanin production. In this study, we have combined a high-throughput, cell-based, one-well/one-gene screening platform with a genome-wide arrayed synthetic library of chemically synthesized, small interfering RNAs to identify novel biological pathways that govern melanin biogenesis in human melanocytes. Ninety-two novel genes that support pigment production were identified with a low false discovery rate. Secondary validation and preliminary mechanistic studies identified a large panel of targets that converge on tyrosinase expression and stability. Small molecule inhibition of a family of gene products in this class was sufficient to impair chronic tyrosinase expression in pigmented melanoma cells and UV-induced tyrosinase expression in primary melanocytes. Isolation of molecular machinery known to support autophagosome biosynthesis from this screen, together with in vitro and in vivo validation, exposed a close functional relationship between melanogenesis and autophagy. In summary, these studies illustrate the power of RNAi-based functional genomics to identify novel genes, pathways, and pharmacologic agents that impact a biological phenotype and operate outside of preconceived mechanistic relationships.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00056-A
Screen Title: Melanogenesis
Assay: Melanin protein expression and viability
Method: Absorbance and luminescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: MNT-1
Library: Dharmacon, rp
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized absorbance ratio
Cutoff: > 2 standard deviations below mean
Notes: Additional information about a secondary screen (retest to determine false-positive rate)

RTK/Ras pathway regulation (1)
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
5.93
none yes

Reference

Phosphatome profiling reveals PTPN2, PTPRJ and PTEN as potent negative regulators of PKB/Akt activation in Ras-mutated cancer cells. Omerovic et al., 2010

Oncogenic Ras mutations render the protein constitutively active and promote tumorigenesis via chronic stimulation of effector pathways. In A549 lung adenocarcinoma approx. 50% of the total Ras population is constitutively active, yet these cells display only weak activation of the effectors: ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. In order to identify key negative regulators of oncogenic Ras signalling we performed a phosphatome RNAi (RNA interference) screen in A549 cells and ranked their effects on phosphorylation of Ser473 of Akt. As expected, the tumour suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) emerged as a leading hit: knockdown elevated Akt activation to 70% of maximal generated by acute EGF (epidermal growth factor) stimulation. Importantly, we identified other phosphatases with similar potencies including PTPN2 (T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase; also known as TC-PTP) and PTPRJ (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J; also known as DEP-1/CD148). Potentiation of Akt phosphorylation by knockdown of PTEN or PTPRJ was contingent on the presence of oncogenic K-Ras. Our data reveal a synergy between oncogene function and the loss of a tumour suppressor within the same pathway that was necessary for full effector activation since each alone failed to elicit significant Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, these data reveal potent regulators of Akt signalling which contribute to ameliorating the consequences of oncogenic K-Ras activity.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00204-A-1
Screen Title: RTK/Ras pathway regulation (1)
Assay: Erk phosphorylation
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Phosphatases
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: A549
Library: Qiagen, np
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Percentage
Cutoff: Top 20
Notes: Additional information about a secondary screen (Panc-08-13 cells)

Selective autophagy regulation (1)
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
sp
none no

Reference

Image-based genome-wide siRNA screen identifies selective autophagy factors. Orvedahl et al., 2011

Selective autophagy involves the recognition and targeting of specific cargo, such as damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, or invading pathogens for lysosomal destruction. Yeast genetic screens have identified proteins required for different forms of selective autophagy, including cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting, pexophagy and mitophagy, and mammalian genetic screens have identified proteins required for autophagy regulation. However, there have been no systematic approaches to identify molecular determinants of selective autophagy in mammalian cells. Here, to identify mammalian genes required for selective autophagy, we performed a high-content, image-based, genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to detect genes required for the colocalization of Sindbis virus capsid protein with autophagolysosomes. We identified 141 candidate genes required for viral autophagy, which were enriched for cellular pathways related to messenger RNA processing, interferon signalling, vesicle trafficking, cytoskeletal motor function and metabolism. Ninety-six of these genes were also required for Parkin-mediated mitophagy, indicating that common molecular determinants may be involved in autophagic targeting of viral nucleocapsids and autophagic targeting of damaged mitochondria. Murine embryonic fibroblasts lacking one of these gene products, the C2-domain containing protein, SMURF1, are deficient in the autophagosomal targeting of Sindbis and herpes simplex viruses and in the clearance of damaged mitochondria. Moreover, SMURF1-deficient mice accumulate damaged mitochondria in the heart, brain and liver. Thus, our study identifies candidate determinants of selective autophagy, and defines SMURF1 as a newly recognized mediator of both viral autophagy and mitophagy.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00242-A-1
Screen Title: Selective autophagy regulation (1)
Assay: Sindbis virus (SIN) capsid SIN-mCherry.capsid and autophagosome GFP–LC3 protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Genome-wide
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: HeLa/GFP-LC3
Library: Dharmacon, siGenome
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Z-score
Cutoff: Complex criteria
Notes:

RTK/Ras pathway regulation (2)
NM_002834
PTPN11
np
48.34
none no

Reference

Phosphatome profiling reveals PTPN2, PTPRJ and PTEN as potent negative regulators of PKB/Akt activation in Ras-mutated cancer cells. Omerovic et al., 2010

Oncogenic Ras mutations render the protein constitutively active and promote tumorigenesis via chronic stimulation of effector pathways. In A549 lung adenocarcinoma approx. 50% of the total Ras population is constitutively active, yet these cells display only weak activation of the effectors: ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2) and Akt. In order to identify key negative regulators of oncogenic Ras signalling we performed a phosphatome RNAi (RNA interference) screen in A549 cells and ranked their effects on phosphorylation of Ser473 of Akt. As expected, the tumour suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) emerged as a leading hit: knockdown elevated Akt activation to 70% of maximal generated by acute EGF (epidermal growth factor) stimulation. Importantly, we identified other phosphatases with similar potencies including PTPN2 (T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase; also known as TC-PTP) and PTPRJ (protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type J; also known as DEP-1/CD148). Potentiation of Akt phosphorylation by knockdown of PTEN or PTPRJ was contingent on the presence of oncogenic K-Ras. Our data reveal a synergy between oncogene function and the loss of a tumour suppressor within the same pathway that was necessary for full effector activation since each alone failed to elicit significant Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, these data reveal potent regulators of Akt signalling which contribute to ameliorating the consequences of oncogenic K-Ras activity.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00204-A-2
Screen Title: RTK/Ras pathway regulation (2)
Assay: Akt phosphorylation
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Phosphatases
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: A549
Library: Qiagen, np
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Percentage
Cutoff: Top 20
Notes: Additional information about a secondary screen (Panc-08-13 cells)

Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
5781
PTPN11
142399
-62.79
none no

Reference

Functional genomic screen for modulators of ciliogenesis and cilium length. Kim et al., 2010

Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved cellular organelles that organize diverse signalling pathways. Defects in the formation or function of primary cilia are associated with a spectrum of human diseases and developmental abnormalities. Genetic screens in model organisms have discovered core machineries of cilium assembly and maintenance. However, regulatory molecules that coordinate the biogenesis of primary cilia with other cellular processes, including cytoskeletal organization, vesicle trafficking and cell-cell adhesion, remain to be identified. Here we report the results of a functional genomic screen using RNA interference (RNAi) to identify human genes involved in ciliogenesis control. The screen identified 36 positive and 13 negative ciliogenesis modulators, which include molecules involved in actin dynamics and vesicle trafficking. Further investigation demonstrated that blocking actin assembly facilitates ciliogenesis by stabilizing the pericentrosomal preciliary compartment (PPC), a previously uncharacterized compact vesiculotubular structure storing transmembrane proteins destined for cilia during the early phase of ciliogenesis. The PPC was labelled by recycling endosome markers. Moreover, knockdown of modulators that are involved in the endocytic recycling pathway affected the formation of the PPC as well as ciliogenesis. Our results uncover a critical regulatory step that couples actin dynamics and endocytic recycling with ciliogenesis, and also provides potential target molecules for future study.

Screen Details

Stable ID: GR00149-A-1
Screen Title: Ciliogenesis and cilium length (1)
Assay: Smoothed protein expression
Method: Fluorescence
Scope: Druggable genes
Screen Type: Cell-based
Species: Homo sapiens
Biosource: Cell line
Biomodel: htRPE
Library: Ambion, Human druggable genome siRNA library V3.1
Reagent Type: siRNA
Score Type: Normalized percent inhibition
Cutoff: > 1.5 OR < -1.5 standard deviations from mean
Notes:

Reagent information for gene 5781 (PTPN11)

Reagent IDTypeLibrary
D-003947-07 siRNA
siGENOME|Thermo Scientific Dharmacon|1|RefSeq release 5-7|84206 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.dharmacon.com/
D-003947-05 siRNA
siGENOME|Thermo Scientific Dharmacon|1|RefSeq release 5-7|84206 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.dharmacon.com/
M-003947-01 siRNA_Pool
siGENOME|Thermo Scientific Dharmacon|1|RefSeq release 5-7|84206 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.dharmacon.com/
D-003947-06 siRNA
siGENOME|Thermo Scientific Dharmacon|1|RefSeq release 5-7|84206 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.dharmacon.com/
D-003947-08 siRNA
siGENOME|Thermo Scientific Dharmacon|1|RefSeq release 5-7|84206 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.dharmacon.com/
SP00006102 siRNA_Pool
Druggable and whole genome supplement|Qiagen|1, 3|RefSeq|70308 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.qiagen.com/
SI03050432 siRNA
Druggable and whole genome supplement|Qiagen|1, 3|RefSeq|70308 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.qiagen.com/
SI02225902 siRNA
Druggable and whole genome supplement|Qiagen|1, 3|RefSeq|70308 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.qiagen.com/
SI02225909 siRNA
Druggable and whole genome supplement|Qiagen|1, 3|RefSeq|70308 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.qiagen.com/
SI00044023 siRNA
Druggable and whole genome supplement|Qiagen|1, 3|RefSeq|70308 siRNAs in pools of four|siRNA|http://www.qiagen.com/
TRCN0000005002 shRNA
TRC shRNA Library|The RNAi Consortium (TRC)|1|RefSeq|81054|shRNA|http://www.broadinstitute.org/rnai/public/
TRCN0000005004 shRNA
TRC shRNA Library|The RNAi Consortium (TRC)|1|RefSeq|81054|shRNA|http://www.broadinstitute.org/rnai/public/
s11524 siRNA
Ambion Silencer Select|Ambion|1|RefSeq|64781|siRNA|http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/brands/ambion.html?CID=fl-ambion
s11525 siRNA
Ambion Silencer Select|Ambion|1|RefSeq|64781|siRNA|http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/brands/ambion.html?CID=fl-ambion
s11526 siRNA
Ambion Silencer Select|Ambion|1|RefSeq|64781|siRNA|http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/brands/ambion.html?CID=fl-ambion
s53027 siRNA
Ambion Silencer Select|Ambion|1|RefSeq|64781|siRNA|http://www.invitrogen.com/site/us/en/home/brands/ambion.html?CID=fl-ambion

Gene information for gene 5781 (PTPN11)

Gene:
Alternate gene names:SHP2, PTP2C, NS1, BPTP3, SH-PTP2, SH-PTP3, CFC, PTP-1D
Description:protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11
Chromosome:12
Start:112856535
Stop:112947716
Strand:positive
Locus:12q24
Biotype:protein-coding
Status:live
Entrez Gene:
GeneCards:
Ensembl:
Hgnc:
Hprd:
Mim:
Uniprot:
Vega:
RefSeq:

Homologs:

GeneChromosomeLocusOrganism
cswXDrosophila melanogaster

Genome browser for gene 5781 (PTPN11)

Homo sapiens GRCh37
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